Monday, May 25, 2020

How to Estimate Standard Deviations (SD)

The standard deviation and range are both measures of the spread of a data set. Each number tells us in its own way how spaced out the data are, as they are both a measure of variation.  Although there is not an explicit relationship between the range and standard deviation, there is a rule of thumb that can be useful to relate these two statistics.  This relationship is sometimes referred to as the range rule for standard deviation. The range rule tells us that the standard deviation of a sample is approximately equal to one-fourth of the range of the data. In other words s (Maximum – Minimum)/4. This is a very straightforward formula to use, and should only be used as a very rough estimate of the standard deviation. An Example To see an example of how the range rule works, we will look at the following example. Suppose we start with the data values of 12, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 18, 20, 20, 25. These values have a mean of 17 and a standard deviation of about 4.1. If instead we first calculate the range of our data as 25 – 12 13 and then divide this number by four we have our estimate of the standard deviation as 13/4 3.25. This number is relatively close to the true standard deviation and good for a rough estimate. Why Does It Work? It may seem like the range rule is a bit strange. Why does it work? Doesn’t it seem completely arbitrary to just divide the range by four? Why wouldn’t we divide by a different number? There is actually some mathematical justification going on behind the scenes. Recall the properties of the bell curve and the probabilities from a standard normal distribution. One feature has to do with the amount of data that falls within a certain number of standard deviations: Approximately 68% of the data is within one standard deviation (higher or lower) from the mean.Approximately 95% of the data is within two standard deviations (higher or lower) from the mean.Approximately 99% is within three standard deviations (higher or lower) from the mean. The number that we will use has to do with 95%. We can say that 95% from two standard deviations below the mean to two standard deviations above the mean, we have 95% of our data. Thus nearly all of our normal distribution would stretch out over a line segment that is a total of four standard deviations long. Not all data is normally distributed and bell curve shaped. But most data is well-behaved enough that going two standard deviations away from the mean captures nearly all of the data. We estimate and say that four standard deviations are approximately the size of the range, and so the range divided by four is a rough approximation of the standard deviation. Uses for the Range Rule The range rule is helpful in a number of settings. First, it is a very quick estimate of the standard deviation. The standard deviation requires us to first find the mean, then subtract this mean from each data point, square the differences, add these, divide by one less than the number of data points, then (finally) take the square root. On the other hand, the range rule only requires one subtraction and one division. Other places where the range rule is helpful is when we have incomplete information. Formulas such as that to determine sample size require three pieces of information: the desired margin of error, the level of confidence and the standard deviation of the population we are investigating. Many times it is impossible to know what the population standard deviation is. With the range rule, we can estimate this statistic, and then know how large we should make our sample.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Book Report for Underground Railroad - 1337 Words

William Wang Mrs. Smart Book Report Midterm Report Underground Railroad Dramatic First-Hand Accounts 1. Alabama a. Narrative of Peter Still i. This narrative appears in stills Underground Railroad Records ii. One of the greatest documents of the underground railroad iii. The life, struggles, and success of Peter and his Family were ably brought before the public in â€Å"The Kidnapped and the Ransoms† iv. His Parents Levin and Sidney were both slaves on the Eastern shore of Maryland v. The father was able to buy his freedom at a low sum vi. But the wife and mother remained a slave vii. The wife had four children, two girls and two boys viii.†¦show more content†¦Narrative of John Brown lxiv. Went to Kansas and brought many weapons lxv. Found his sons in an unsheltered area lxvi. Created a posse to fight against Missouri pro slavery militia occupying Kansas lxvii. During the battles one of John Brown’s son was killed lxviii. Many Missouri men had robbed Kansas houses during battle lxix. Created one of the first sparks of the Civil W ar 5. South Carolina lxx. Large portions of the slaves lived near the water lxxi. Many seek northern captains to pilot them north lxxii. Dr. Alexander M. Ross traveled through South Carolina for the purpose of spreading the word about Canada and the routes slaves could take to reach Canada g. Narrative of John Jackson lxxiii. Was able to live with the masters children as a playmate lxxiv. Started to work in the fields when he was 7 or 8 lxxv. Only had 2 meals a day lxxvi. The overseers whipped him in front of his father lxxvii. Was married and had a baby boy lxxviii. Was whipped to give up his wife lxxix. Decided to run away to the north and have his wife bought back lxxx. There was a north bound ship which John Jackson hid in for 4 days lxxxi. Out of hunger he dig a hole in the wooden planks that signaled the Captain lxxxii. The captain helpedShow MoreRelatedThe Underground Railroad : The United States History1456 Words   |  6 PagesThe Underground Railroad is a popular topic in United States history, but many of the stories told about it are more myth than fact. Quilts have been often used as a symbol in children s picture books to further the understanding of one of the darkest periods of United States history: slavery. Parents and teachers have eagerly embraced these illustrated books as a way to understand and teach past turmoil. Many of these books suggest that people who participated in the Underground Railroad used quiltsRead MoreThe Life Of A Woman Harriet Tubman1404 Words   |  6 Pages This book will create an image of a woman Harriet Tubman, who was compared to the biblical Moses as she was determined to get her people out of bondage and onto freedom seen as their promised land. Reading the book will no doubt create a level of pain within the reader as he/she feels the pain that not only Harriet Tubman suffered but also those who suffered and died in the quest from slavery to freedom. This small yet powerful book of 22 chapters, takes u s as passengers on this fictitiousRead More The Role of Washington County, Ohio in the Success of the Underground Railroad3729 Words   |  15 Pagesthe Underground Railroad Gone, gone, --sold and gone To the rice-swamps dank and lone, From Virginias hills and waters, -- Woe is me, my stolen daughters! (Whittier in Hamilton, pg. 105) Families torn apart, humans sold on auction blocks, using humans for animal labor. These tragedies along with the words of the Quaker poet John Whiittier are just the beginning when trying to explain the motivation for abolitionists helping to free slaves. The Underground Railroad wasRead MoreSigns, Symbols and Signals of the Underground Railroad Essay3216 Words   |  13 PagesSigns, Symbols and Signals of the Underground Railroad A journey of hundreds of miles lies before you, through swamp, forest and mountain pass. Your supplies are meager, only what can be comfortably carried so as not to slow your progress to the Promised Land – Canada. The stars and coded messages for guidance, you set out through the night, the path illuminated by the intermittent flash of lightning. Without a map and no real knowledge of the surrounding area, your mind races before youRead MoreTen Days That Shook the World by John Reed667 Words   |  3 Pagesthe cold while the working class still maintained control of factories and railroads. The armies froze, the factories shut down and food became hard to come by. Some radical protestors even went as far to destroy their own possessions. â€Å"I know of certain coal-mines near Kharkov which were fired and flooded by their owners, or textile factories at Moscow whose engineers put the machinery out of order when they left, or railroad officials caught by the workers in t he act of crippling locomotives† (ReedRead MoreUnderground to Canada: Ch 6-10 by: Danish Khan1726 Words   |  7 PagesThis was essentially a Book Report assignment that my grade 8 teacher gave me. It basically summarizes the book from chapter 6-10 chapters of the book Underground to Canada, by Barbara Smucker via Book Report format. This should be quite use full for students under TDSB Scarborough area. =========================January 7, 2008 Danish KhanFirst Steps WritingCH 6-10 RecountStolen and ripped away from her loving mother, Julilly travels in a wooden cart with other slaves from Massa Hensens plantationRead MoreTheme Of Individualism In Anthem1426 Words   |  6 Pagesand if one individual determines that the technology will not benefit all of his fellow brothers, then it will never see the light of day. Early on in the book, Equality begins to act of his own volition, acting in opposition to the laws that mandate that one should act in accordance with his fellow brothers. He discovers an underground railroad tunnel system, which is an utterly foreign concept (12). Having found intellectual manuscripts, Equality begins experimenting by himself, isolated from theRead MoreThe War Of The Civil War Essay1688 Words   |  7 Pagesfor joy, the organization of subjection had turned out to be immovably settled in America. blacks worked in the tobacco fields of Virginia, in the r ice fields of South Carolina, and drudged in little ranches and shops in the North. Foner and Mahoney report in A House Divided, America in the Age of Lincoln that, In 1776, slaves made forty percent out of the number of inhabitants in the provinces from Maryland south to Georgia, yet well beneath ten percent in the states toward the North. The developmentRead MoreHarriet Beecher Stowe : An Abolitionist1645 Words   |  7 PagesHentz, Salmon P. Chase, Emily Blackwell, and others. It was in that group that met Calvin Ellis Stowe, a widower and professor at the seminary. The two were married on January 6, 1836. He was an ardent critic of slavery, Stowe and supported the Underground Railroad, which temporarily houses several fugitive slaves in their home. They had seven children, including two twin daughters. In 1850, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law, prohibiting assistance to fugitives. At that time, Stowe had moved withRead MoreThe Unknown Of D Day1583 Words   |  7 Pagesof Americans, British, Belgium, Canadian, French, Danish, and Norwegian military branches to free Europe from notorious German control. Many questions involving D-Day have yet to be answered, such as the ones to be listed. How did the French Underground/French Resistance assist in the invasion? Why were paratroopers crucial to the push inland from the beaches? Why were the German Panzer tanks kept in reserve when they could’ve pushed the allied advance back? What were the tactical failures committed

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Daniel Shays As An American Officer - 1730 Words

Daniel Shays Daniel Shays served role as an American officer in the American Revolution from 1775 to 1780 and also became known as one of the leaders of Shays Rebellion, which lasted from 1786 to 1787. In 1780 he resigned from the army, and settled in Pelham, Massachusetts, where he held numerous town offices. Soon after, wealth reigned in America at the signing of the peace treaty in 1783, but was quickly transformed into a severe economic depression. He began his rebellion when property holders, including himself, began losing their belongings through confiscations for unpaid debts and taxes and became subject to debtor’s imprisonment. Protests then followed, with threats of violence against the courts conducting the enforcements and arraignments. This is when Shays arose as one of the several leaders of what came to be known as Shays Rebellion. After the Rebellion was over, he and approximately a dozen others were sentenced to death by the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. However, towards the end of the rebellion, Shays had escaped to Vermont, soon afterwards he moved to Schoharie county, New York, and then a few years later moved further west to Sparta, New York. Shays, in his old age, was granted a retirement pension by the federal government for the five years he served in the Continental Army without pay. He lived the last couple years of his life in poverty, as a heavy drinker and supported himself on his pension by working a small piece of land. He laterShow MoreRelatedDaniel Shays Would you work for a government that expected you to put your life in jeopardy, did1000 Words   |  4 PagesDaniel Shays Would you work for a government that expected you to put your life in jeopardy, did not pay you for your service and then try to seize your house and property to settle your debts? This is exactly what Daniel Shays’ government tried to do to him after returning home injured during the Revolutionary War. So why did he choose the path and become a member of the military? He didn’t, he had little choice due to financial debts! He was like many other young Americans at the time; withoutRead MoreEssay on Shays Rebellion1481 Words   |  6 Pagestaxes that had to be paid in cash. According to historian Leonard Richards, â€Å"Taxes levied by the state [Massachusetts] were now much more oppressive—indeed many times more oppressive—than those that had been levied by the British on the eve of the American Revolution† (Richards 88).Ninety percent of all taxes collected were for property or poll taxes (Smith). Each family had to pay a tax for every male that was older than sixteen in the household under the poll tax, leaving the farmer who had grownRead MoreThe Articles Of Confederation And The Constitution899 Words   |  4 PagesThe Constitution remains as relevant today as it did over two hundred years ago. Americans have lived their lives through the law of the Constitution of the United Staes of America for several years. The Constitution has kept our nation together and has kept us strong. â€Å"The Constitution defines the United States of America. This greatest of American documents not only establishes our system of government; it limits the power of that government, specifying our irrevocable rights and privileges asRead MoreThe Articles Of Confederation And The United States994 Words   |  4 Pagesestablished the functions of the national government of the United States after it declared independence from Great Britain. The Articles provided a system for the Continental Congress to direct the American Revolutionary War, conduct diplomacy with Europe and deal with territorial issues and Native American relations. The articles were supposed to be a legislative body serving as the nation’s executive rather than a parliament. It had full power over foreign affairs and questions of war and peace, itRead MoreExplain The Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Articles Of Confederation857 Words   |  4 Pageswith the needs of citizens. They also complained that it failed to guarantee individual liberties, so the bill of rights was made, the bill of write was a bill which consisted of the 10-constitutional amendment which guaranteed certain rights to American citizens in all circumstances. This bill was put forth by antifederalists who were afraid of forms of government intervention on personal liberties. These events took place in the second constitutional congress, another event that happened was theRead MoreThe War Of The United States1489 Words   |  6 Pagesvarying degrees of viability. During the dawn of the United States of America, Congress led the nation in its affairs. The members distinguished themselves into two ideologies that differed in terms of managing the army during the peacetime after the American Revolution. Nationalists wanted to keep a large professional standing army, akin to the British, and to become allies with the British. They believed a standing army would help protect America and impress European powers. Anti-Nationalists wantedRead MoreThe War Was The American Revolution1441 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican had fought many wars in its long life, but the most impacting war was the American revolution. The American revolution created many revolutions in American society from 1775 to 1800, but to understand why we have to start from the beginning. The American revolution started in 1763 and finished in the year 1783. This revolution consisted of the thirteen colonies uniting under on nation to fight the authority of Great Britain. The American revolution was the effect of political, social, Read MoreThe Articles of Confederation Essay828 Words   |  4 Pagesprobably achieved its most important success in the handling of west diplomatic and financial concerns. In evaluting post-American Revolutionary War, overall the Articles of Confederation did not provide the United States with an effective government due to the lack of central power. Upon Independence, financial problems troubled the Confederation government. During the American Revolutionary War for independence, Congress and the states had printed good faith paper currency. It became virtuallyRead More The Whiskey Rebellion Essay1436 Words   |  6 PagesSpain and Britain were wreaking havoc along our borders. British troops, violating the Treaty of Paris, refused to vacate their garrisons along the Great Lakes; Spain, who held New Orleans, closed the Mississippi River to American shipping below Nachez and actively encouraged American settlers to break away from the Union and establish relations with them; Westerners in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and Pennsylvania were subjected to attacks by marauding Indians (often instigated by the Spanish and British)Read MoreAbandoning The Articles Of Confederation For Theu.s. Constitution Essay1432 Words   |  6 Pages1781. That same year the Articles of Confederation was ratified after four years. Americans needed a functioning government we finally got our independence from Britain with the Treaty of Versailles in 1783. Little success came from the Articles of Confederation it was a weak confederation of the 13 state s and it caused economic problems for the Americans. Although there might be different opinions as to why the Americans abandoned the Articles of Confederation. However I believe that because of a weak

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Ma Assignment free essay sample

Why may financial information alone be insufficient for the ongoing informational needs of operators/workers, managers and executives? Financial information’s are the measurement of the effectiveness and efficiency of operator’s actions, and it’s mainly for the use of external users. However financial information did not reflect the non-financial information such as performances of workers etc. But operators need direct measurement on variables of outputs and inputs resources so they can control the quality of their work. The variables include time requirement relevant process to produce the output. Hence it is important for the operators to enhance their quality, productivity, and time spending on their task. As a brief concluding, operators needs measurements of performance to achieve better efficiency and effectiveness of their existing operations, which financial information did not provides. For managers, financial information alone is insufficient for decision makings because it cannot assists in controlling and directing the operational activities of the firm manufacturing process. We will write a custom essay sample on Ma Assignment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Controlling and processing the operational activities will ensure the long run and profitability of a firm. Also, budgeting and planning the work of a firm will motivate the managers to direct their subordinates for improvement of task. The manager of a firm must assure the appropriate use of its resource. In contrast to financial information, the manager of an entity also need primarily looking forward information based on abstraction to support their makings of decisions.. It is to ensure that the resource of the company is fully utilized, and reduce the wastage to minimum level. Nowadays, competition among industries has reached an intensive stage, it’s crucial for manager to make effective decisions to survive the competition. As for executives, non financial information such as market information is important for retention or acquisition of investment and shares. In other way, customer feedback on firm performance is also a sticking point for decisions making. Customer satisfaction reflects the quality of the firm services and products. Executive could also customize their output to reach increment in customer satisfaction. An executive should be sensitive to the firm operating information such as employee morality, safety and timeliness of key business provides to succeed in their strategic proposal and the efficiency of internal operations. ( B ). Describe the differences between the management accounting information needed in manufacturing organizations and that are needed in service organizations? Normally, there are slight difference between the management information needed in manufacturing organization and service organization. Accurate cost information is required in both organization in decision making for distinguishing between profitable and unprofitable activities in addition, the required information for planning, control, performance measurement and continuous improvement. The difference in information needs are planning, that is a very essential tool in every manufacturing firm and these information assists the firm to make cost-benefit analysis of each alternative and the decision taken whereas service organization need those information while communicating directly with customer Manufacturing organization will gather and analyze data in their sales quantity, profit gain, and cost of production before manufacturing a new product however service organization focus on individual service such like after-sale service. Moreover, manufacturing organization are base on process costing but service organization are base on job-order costing. Product of manufacturing organization are homogeneous but the product of service organization are base on customer‘s demand. Furthermore, service organization needed management information such as customer feedback, survey taking, complaint and convey these information to manufacturing organization ,this help them in improvement of quality and quantity of product. Manufacturing organization needs inventories management information because it requires inventories keeping, however does not emphasize on inventories keeping because it mainly produce service which is the main product. Another point of view, service organization mainly consist of labor work while manufacturing may only need machinery supervising or labor for other purpose. As a conclusion, it is quite clear that the manufacturing cost which is also call production cost in broader terms, are losing relevance when comparing to service company to a traditional manufacturing company. ( C ) Consider the operation of a fast food company while hundreds of retail outlets scattered about the country. Identify the management accounting information needed for the followings. ( i ) The manager of a local fast food outlets that prepares food and serves it to customer who walk in and pick it up at a drive-through window. The manager of a local fast food outlets that prepares food and serves its to customer who walk in and pick it up at a drive-through window will need the information of the following, such as quality control of food served, the time taken to prepare and serve the customer, cleanliness of the outlet and employees attitude and morality. These are important factors as the company will be defamed. Also, the manager of the outlet should know the average operating expenses and revenues, the availability of stock, food or material scrapped and customer flow of that particular province. In addition, the manager must be aware of customer satisfaction toward the outlet products and services in order to improve the outlet compatibility in the future. ( ii ) The regional manager who supervises the operations of all the retail outlets in a three-state region. The regional manager will need to know the operating report of particular outlets consisting total revenues, total operating cost, total material cost, total products being sold. This manager will have to know the profitability of each outlets and average customer served. The manager should carry out survey on outlets upon their quality of services and products. Sometimes, the manager would send inspector to various outlets to report cleanliness and quality of food serve and service provided. Also, it is crucial for the manager to control the quality of each outlets. ( iii ) Senior management located at the company’s corporate headquarters. Consider specifically the information needs of the president as well as the vice president of operations and marketing. The vice president of operations will likely wish to see the report revenue and expenses and statistic of efficiency and productivity of each outlet. This particular manager will also required to know the report of cleanliness, services and customer feedback. The vice president of the marketing department will need to know the ordering rate of each product, customer flow of each outlets, average revenues and expenses of each product and service. In addition, information on competitors in relevant industries would be desirable in order to compete and survive the harsh compete. As for the president of both marketing and operating department, they would require the revenue and expenses summary obtain by the vice president, not to mention that average report on various outlet about their operating results and problems and the stock turn. With this information, the president could make the most precise decisions to help improve the outlets performance and profitability.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Dr Daniel J. Boorstin Essays - Daniel J. Boorstin, Librarians

Dr Daniel J. Boorstin Dr. Daniel J. Boorstin (1914- ) holds many honorable positions and has received numerous awards for his notable work. He is one of America's most eminent historians, the author of more than fifteen books and numerous articles on the history of the United States, as well as a creator of a television show. His editor- wife, Ruth Frankel Boorstin, a Wellesley graduate, has been his close collaborator. Born in Atlanta, Georgia, and raised in Oklahoma, he received his undergraduate degree with highest honors from Harvard and his doctor's degree from Yale. He has spent a great deal of his life abroad, first in England as a Rhodes Scholar at Balliol College, Oxford. More recently he has been visiting professor of American History at the University of Rome, Italy, the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and at Kyoto University, Japan. He was the first incumbent of the chair of American History at the Sorbonne, and was the Professor of American History and Institutions as well as Fellow of Trinity College, at Cambridge University. He has been director of the National Museum of American History and the Librarian of Congress Emeritus. He is a member of the Massachusetts Bar and has practiced law. He has received more than fifty honorary degrees and has been honored by the governments of France, Belgium and Portugal. In 1989 he received the National Book Award for Distinguished Contributions to American Letters by the NationalBook Foundation. Dr. Boorstin's many books include the trilogy The Americans: The Colonial Experience, which won the Bancroft Prize, The Americans: The National Experience, which won the Parkman Prize, and The Americans: The Democratic Experience, which won the Pulitzer Prize. His 1983 work, The Discoverers, a best selling history of man's search to know the world and himself, was awarded the Watson Davis Prize of the History of Science Society. His other works include The Mysterious Science of Law, The Genius of American Politics, and The Republic of Technology. In addition, he is the editor of An American Primer and the thirty volume series The Chicago History of American Civilization. His books have been translated into twenty-five languages (GBN Reviews, 1997). Most of Dr. Boorstin's books are not written as conventional chronological histories. Instead, their brief chapters explore many disparate facets of American culture. The topics which he covers range from the new grammar, the rise of the candy bar and the moon landing, to the development of the cash register (Minskoff, 1973). He does not relate those facts simply because they are themselves interesting, amusing and enlightening - though they are that, too. He uses them all to help ask the questions that he strives to answer in most of his books: What has life come to mean and cease to mean to the late- twentieth century Americans? He makes history into a kind of national autobiography, reminding the people that they have made themselves what theyare. Dr. Boorstin's most known book is probably The Americans: The Democratic Experience. The democracy that is described in this book has little to do with majority rule and minority rights. It is a full scale portrait of modern America, which describes not only the major events that were vital to the nation's history, but the countless and little-noticed revolutions, which occurred not on battlefields but in people's homes, farms, factories, schools and stores. These revolutions make something surprising and unprecedented of everyday experience. He shows that the Americans have become a nation which is held together by what its members buy, the advertising they see, defined by how they count themselves and how others count them, characterized by the way they describe their wealth or poverty. The endless streams of property created by the American corporation, the new ambiguity of ownership in a nation of franchised outlets, and the new democracy of packaging, in which the wrapping of items often costs more than their contents, in Dr. Boorstin's words, add up to the "thinner life of things"(Boorstin,1973). The quest for novelty has brought, along with its rewards, a new bewilderment over what people really mean by something new. The very idea of progress is displaced by the rate of growth. According to Dr. Boorstin, all of that adds up to the Democratic Experience. This book aims at a balanced assessment of the price and the promise of what American civilization has done with and for and to Americans. The book's anecdotal style makes it a great reading experience. However, Boorstin omits many happenings that had a great impact on American culture, such as the labor movement and the Vietnam War. Boorstin may "dislike important events"(Mohs,1973). However, those two events are too important for

Monday, March 9, 2020

When I was a Kid

When I was a Kid When I was a kid we left the dirty streets of Brooklyn, New York for the quieter suburban streets of Connecticut. We moved into a large house in Norwalk, Connecticut. Norwalk is the sort of town that dreams of being a big city but will always be just another small port on the Connecticut coastline. Like out of some horror story, the south side of town offers plenty of frightening images: ghettos, drug dealers, prostitutes, graffiti, and even young urban professionals. The south end was a popular place to work, but when the day ended, these young men and woman got into their BMWs, Porsches, and other toys and drove to safe ground. Most found their way to surrounding towns: Westport, Wilton, New Canaan, and others. Other people, like my parents, crossed town through East Norwalk to our home in the northern end of town. Sometimes I would hear my father boast to far off relatives that we lived in a nice residential neighborhood (otherwise known as 'the good area') In most horror stories, as the hero approaches some haunted house (or some other terror) you can shout, 'Don't go in there! Stay away!' People moving into Norwalk have no such luck; they move into the charming town without a clue of it's underlying sickness and disagreeable citizens.English: monument in East Norwalk Historical Cemet...One of my first discoveries was the river that passed through the middle of town. I was only a kid, maybe ten, when I started fishing by the edge of the river. It wasn't easy finding the perfect location; this was a place where I would want to be alone, a place to get away from the unhappiness that would spread like fire through my home on occasion.This time away was possibly the most important thing to me then. When...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Sex as Crime Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Sex as Crime - Essay Example Similarly, sex as crime becomes highly obvious in a critical analysis of rape which is another type of sexual assault against females and it is more regular a practice in the modern society. Therefore, a reflective analysis of rape and domestic violence in relation to sex as crime assumes several themes and values such as humanist, minimalist, tolerant, responsible, and pro-feminist. Such an analysis also includes an investigation of the advantages and disadvantages of legislation and government control in the areas of rape and sexual violence. Significantly, "it remains the case that 'sex crime' (defined in its broadest sense to include issues such as soliciting, violence against sex workers, rape in war, internet grooming) is often considered to be less important, both legally and academically, than issues such as policing, community safety, white-collar crime and imprisonment. It is also fair to say that, given the current backlash against feminism, these issues are further margi nalised. Critical study in this area challenges both the workings of the criminal justice system and definitions of 'traditional' criminology." (Letherby, 5) Therefore, a pro-feminist and gender-sensitive approach to these issues highlights the problems with the stereotypical definitions of genderless 'sex crime'. A reflective analysis of rape and domestic violence in the contemporary world emphasises that the concept of 'sex as crime' is an essential one which covers several areas of criminal justice system and social issues. The concept of 'sex as crime' and rape and domestic violence The concept of 'sex as crime' in relation to rape and domestic violence assumes prominent role in the criminal justice system as well as policy matter. Significantly, rape and domestic violence against women became one of the most crucial policy priorities in the UK by the year 2000 as a result of the tree-decades long feminist campaigning. Contemporary investigations and researches reveal that the issues of rape and domestic violence have increased tremendously and there is poor handling of these issues in the criminal justice system. In fact, there is no other crime than rape which is handled more defectively by the criminal justice system and it is also under-reported crime. Whereas the vast majority of rape victims do not report the sexual attacks on them, it is also significant that the prosecution rate of rape cases is also much lower than other serious crimes. In fact, rape is a special type of sex crime where the case of the victim is much more serious than what is commonly p erceived. "As a crime, rape is in a class by itself; in the experience of the crime, in people's response to the victim and in the law enforcement skills needed to investigate and prosecute the crime Unlike victims of any other crime, rape victims are often subject to concerted ostracizing, disbelief, and blame. Hostilities against the victim quickly gather steam. These hostilities are frequently bolstered by powerful (male dominated) institutions such as schools, churches, businesses, families, and authorities." (Sex Crimes: Police Response and Investigation) Therefore, the issue of